Understanding Diamond Clarity: A Comprehensive Guide

Diamond clarity is a crucial factor in determining the quality and value of a diamond. Simply put, diamond clarity refers to the presence or absence of flaws, inclusions, and blemishes within a diamond. These imperfections can affect a diamond’s appearance and brilliance, as well as its overall value.

To assess diamond clarity, experts use a grading system that ranges from Flawless (no inclusions or blemishes visible under 10x magnification) to Included (inclusions visible to the naked eye). The most commonly used grading scales are provided by the Gemological Institute of America (GIA), the American Gem Society (AGS), and the European Gemological Laboratory (EGL).

What is Diamond Clarity?

Diamond clarity refers to the presence or absence of inclusions, flaws, or blemishes in a diamond. Inclusions are internal characteristics, while flaws and blemishes are external. These imperfections can affect the diamond’s appearance and value.

Diamond clarity is measured using a grading scale that ranges from Flawless (FL) to Included (I3). The scale takes into account the number, size, visibility, and location of the inclusions, as well as whether they affect the diamond’s overall durability.

The Diamond Clarity Scale

The diamond clarity scale is used to grade diamonds based on the presence and severity of inclusions, which are internal imperfections, and blemishes, which are external marks. The scale ranges from Flawless to Included, with 11 grades in total.

Flawless (FL) and Internally Flawless (IF)

Diamonds in the Flawless and Internally Flawless categories have no visible inclusions or blemishes when viewed under 10X magnification. FL diamonds have no internal or external imperfections, while IF diamonds may have minor blemishes on the surface but no internal imperfections.

Very Very Slightly Included (VVS1 and VVS2)

VVS diamonds have very small inclusions that are difficult to see under 10X magnification. VVS1 diamonds have inclusions that are extremely difficult to spot, while VVS2 diamonds have slightly more noticeable inclusions but are still considered high quality.

Very Slightly Included (VS1 and VS2)

VS diamonds have small inclusions that are visible under 10X magnification. VS1 diamonds have inclusions that are difficult to see without magnification, while VS2 diamonds have slightly more noticeable inclusions but are still considered high quality.

Slightly Included (SI1 and SI2)

SI diamonds have noticeable inclusions that are easily visible under 10X magnification. SI1 diamonds have inclusions that are still relatively small and may be hidden by the setting, while SI2 diamonds have larger and more numerous inclusions that may be visible to the naked eye.

Included (I1, I2, and I3)

Diamonds in the Included category have inclusions that are visible to the naked eye and may impact the diamond’s overall beauty. I1 diamonds have larger inclusions that are more noticeable, while I2 and I3 diamonds have even larger and more numerous inclusions that may affect the diamond’s durability and make it more prone to cracking or chipping.

How Diamond Clarity is Graded

Diamond clarity grading is a complex and meticulous process that involves examining the diamond under high magnification for inclusions and blemishes. The GIA (Gemological Institute of America), AGS (American Gem Society), and EGL (European Gemological Laboratory) are three commonly used and respected grading systems.

The GIA system is widely recognized as the most reliable and consistent diamond grading system. The process involves examining the diamond under 10x magnification and assigning a clarity grade based on the size, location, and number of inclusions and blemishes.

The AGS system also uses 10x magnification to assess the diamond’s clarity based on the number, size, location, and type of inclusions. However, the AGS system is more detailed, with eleven different clarity grades compared to GIA’s six.

The EGL system uses a similar grading process but is generally considered less reliable because the grading standards are not as rigorous as those of GIA and AGS. EGL’s grades may be lower in comparison, which can cause a discrepancy in diamond value.

How Diamond Clarity Grading Works

Diamond clarity grading involves examining the diamond under high magnification and assigning a grade based on the following factors:

  • Type of inclusion or blemish
  • Size of the inclusion or blemish
  • Location of the inclusion or blemish
  • Number of inclusions or blemishes

Graders use a 10x magnification loupe or microscope to detect inclusions and blemishes within the diamond. The diamond is analyzed from multiple angles and under different lighting conditions to accurately assess its clarity characteristics. The grader then assigns a grade based on a standard set of criteria, such as the GIA’s clarity grading system.

Overall, diamond clarity grading is a highly technical process that requires specialized knowledge and expertise. By understanding how diamond clarity is graded, consumers can make informed decisions when selecting a diamond.

Factors that Affect Diamond Clarity

Diamond clarity is influenced by a variety of factors that impact the presence and visibility of inclusions and blemishes. Understanding these factors can help you make an informed decision when selecting a diamond based on clarity.


The cut of a diamond refers to its proportions, angles, and symmetry, and it can significantly impact diamond clarity by affecting the way light enters and exits the stone. A well-cut diamond can enhance its overall appearance by reflecting light in a way that minimizes the visibility of inclusions and blemishes. On the other hand, a poorly cut diamond can make inclusions and blemishes more noticeable, reducing its clarity grade.

Carat Weight

The carat weight of a diamond is a measure of its size, and it can also impact its clarity. Larger diamonds are more likely to have visible inclusions and blemishes, so it’s important to balance carat weight with other factors, such as cut and clarity grade, to ensure a visually appealing diamond.


The color of a diamond can affect the visibility of inclusions and blemishes. Diamonds with a higher color grade, such as those in the D-F range, tend to have fewer visible inclusions and blemishes. This is because inclusions and blemishes can appear more noticeable against a white background, especially in diamonds with lower color grades.

By considering these factors, you can make a more informed decision when selecting a diamond based on clarity. Finding the right balance between these factors can help you choose a diamond that is both visually appealing and within your budget and preferences.

The Importance of Diamond Clarity

Diamond clarity is one of the famous 4 C’s of diamond quality, alongside cut, carat weight, and color. While all of these factors are essential in determining a diamond’s value and appearance, clarity is particularly crucial.

The clarity of a diamond refers to the presence or absence of inclusions and blemishes, which are natural imperfections that can affect a diamond’s visual appearance and structural integrity. Inclusions are internal flaws, such as air bubbles or trace minerals, while blemishes are external flaws, such as scratches or chips.

The presence of inclusions and blemishes can significantly impact a diamond’s value and visual appeal. A diamond with minimal inclusions and blemishes will appear more brilliant, fiery, and scintillating, while a diamond with significant inclusions and blemishes may appear dull, cloudy, or less shiny.

Therefore, when purchasing a diamond, it is essential to pay attention to its clarity grade and select a stone with minimal inclusions and blemishes. Higher clarity grades typically indicate that a diamond has fewer inclusions and blemishes and will appear more beautiful, making it a more valuable investment in the long run.

However, it is also essential to balance clarity with other factors, such as budget and personal preferences. While a higher clarity grade may be desirable, it may be more expensive, making it less feasible for some buyers. Additionally, some individuals may prefer the unique characteristics and flaws of a diamond, making clarity a less critical factor in their decision-making process.

Diamond Clarity Enhancement Techniques

In some cases, diamond clarity can be enhanced through various techniques. However, it’s essential to understand that these methods can impact the value and integrity of the diamond.

Laser drilling is a technique used to remove inclusions from diamonds. A tiny laser beam is used to create a small tunnel from the surface of the diamond to the inclusion. Then, another laser is used to vaporize the inclusion, leaving a small white mark or channel that is visible under magnification.

Fracture filling involves injecting a glass-like substance into a diamond’s fractures to make them less visible. However, this method can significantly affect the value of the diamond and can be difficult to detect without special equipment.

It’s important to note that not all diamond enhancement methods are reversible, so it’s crucial to fully understand the potential consequences before proceeding with any technique.

How to Choose a Diamond Based on Clarity

Choosing a diamond can be a daunting task, but understanding diamond clarity can help you make an informed decision that suits your budget and preferences. Here are some tips on how to choose a diamond based on clarity:

  1. Consider your budget: Diamonds with higher clarity grades are typically more expensive. Determine a budget that works for you and look for diamonds within that range.
  2. Think about the intended use: If you’re buying a diamond for an engagement ring or other piece of jewelry that will be worn frequently, consider opting for a diamond with a higher clarity grade to ensure it will withstand everyday wear and tear. If it’s for a special occasion or investment purposes, a lower clarity grade may be suitable.
  3. View the diamond in person: While online shopping is convenient, it’s important to view the diamond in person to get a true sense of its clarity and overall appearance. Look for a reputable jeweler who can provide a detailed diamond grading report and show you the diamond in various lighting conditions.
  4. Consider your personal preferences: Some people prefer a diamond with no visible inclusions, while others may not mind if they are not noticeable to the naked eye. It’s important to choose a diamond that matches your personal taste and style.

By considering these factors, you can choose a diamond based on clarity that meets your needs and suits your budget and style.

Diamond Clarity Myths and Misconceptions

Despite being an essential factor in assessing diamond quality, diamond clarity is often misunderstood. Here, we’ll debunk some common myths and misconceptions surrounding diamond clarity.

Myth: A Higher Clarity Grade Always Means a Better Diamond

This is not necessarily true. While a higher clarity grade may indicate fewer inclusions, it does not always mean a better-looking diamond. In some cases, inclusions can be visible to the naked eye at higher clarity grades, which may affect the diamond’s appearance. It’s crucial to consider other factors, such as cut and color, along with clarity when selecting a diamond.

Myth: Inclusions Always Detract from a Diamond’s Beauty

While inclusions can affect a diamond’s appearance, they do not always detract from its beauty. In fact, some inclusions, such as ones that create unique patterns or textures, can add character and charm to a diamond. Additionally, inclusions can make a diamond more affordable, allowing buyers to purchase a larger or higher-quality diamond within their budget.

Myth: A Diamond with Blemishes is Less Valuable than One with Inclusions

This is false. Blemishes, which are external imperfections such as scratches or nicks, can affect a diamond’s appearance, but they do not necessarily make it less valuable than a diamond with inclusions. The severity and location of blemishes play a significant role in determining a diamond’s value, just like inclusions. A diamond with a prominent inclusion in a visible location may be less valuable than a diamond with a small blemish in an inconspicuous location.

By understanding these myths and misconceptions, you can make a more informed decision when selecting a diamond based on clarity. Remember, clarity is just one of the factors to consider when purchasing a diamond, and it’s essential to take into account other factors such as cut, color, and carat weight to find the perfect diamond for you.

FAQ about Diamond Clarity

Q: What is the difference between inclusions and blemishes in a diamond?

A: Inclusions are internal flaws that occur during the diamond’s formation, while blemishes are external flaws that happen during the cutting and polishing process. Inclusions can usually be seen under magnification, while blemishes are often visible to the naked eye.

Q: Does a diamond with inclusions mean it’s not a good investment?

A: Not necessarily. While a higher clarity grade can increase the value of a diamond, inclusions do not necessarily detract from its beauty or durability. It ultimately depends on personal preference and the intended use of the diamond.

Q: How can I clean my diamond without damaging it?

A: To clean a diamond, use a soft-bristled brush and a mixture of warm water and mild soap. Rinse the diamond thoroughly with warm water and dry it with a soft cloth. Avoid using harsh chemicals or ultrasonic cleaners, as they can damage the diamond or its setting.

Q: Can a diamond’s clarity grade change over time?

A: No, a diamond’s clarity grade does not change over time. However, if a diamond has been treated to enhance its clarity, such as through laser drilling or fracture filling, the treatment may eventually wear off or become more visible.

Q: Is a higher clarity grade always better?

A: Not necessarily. While a higher clarity grade can increase the value of a diamond, it may not necessarily result in a more visually appealing diamond. Inclusions can sometimes give a diamond character and uniqueness, and some individuals may prefer a diamond with a lower clarity grade but a more interesting appearance.

Q: Can a diamond’s clarity grade be subjective?

A: Yes, to some extent. Diamond clarity grading is conducted by trained professionals who use specific criteria to determine a diamond’s clarity grade. However, there can be some variation in how different individuals interpret and apply these criteria. It’s important to choose a reputable and reliable diamond grader, such as GIA or AGS, to ensure accurate and consistent grading.